Thoughts of Albert Einstein on idea of God

Transcript

October 25, 1950

Mr. Morton Berkowitz
365 New York Ave.
Brooklyn N.Y.

Dear Mr. Berkowitz:

I felt very grateful receiving your kind letter of October 24th. Such utterances are the finest reward for an author.

My position concerning God is that of an agnostic. I am convinced that vivid consciousness of the primary importance of moral principles for the betterment and enoblement of life does not need the idea of a law-giver, especially a law-giver who works on the basis of reward and punishment

I am sending you under separate cover two books of mine containing occasional writings where you will find more about this subject.

Sincerely yours,

(Signed, ‘A. Einstein.’)

Albert Einstein.

http://www.lettersofnote.com/2010/04/my-position-concerning-god-is-that-of.html

Translated Transcript

Princeton, 3. 1. 1954

Dear Mr Gutkind,

Inspired by Brouwer’s repeated suggestion, I read a great deal in your book, and thank you very much for lending it to me … With regard to the factual attitude to life and to the human community we have a great deal in common. Your personal ideal with its striving for freedom from ego-oriented desires, for making life beautiful and noble, with an emphasis on the purely human element … unites us as having an “American Attitude.”

Still, without Brouwer’s suggestion I would never have gotten myself to engage intensively with your book because it is written in a language inaccessible to me. The word God is for me nothing more than the expression and product of human weakness, the Bible a collection of honorable, but still purely primitive, legends which are nevertheless pretty childish. No interpretation no matter how subtle can (for me) change this. … For me the Jewish religion like all other religions is an incarnation of the most childish superstition. And the Jewish people to whom I gladly belong … have no different quality for me than all other people. As far as my experience goes, they are also no better than other human groups, although they are protected from the worst cancers by a lack of power. Otherwise I cannot see anything “chosen” about them.

In general I find it painful that you claim a privileged position and try to defend it by two walls of pride, an external one as a man and an internal one as a Jew. As a man you claim, so to speak, a dispensation from causality otherwise accepted, as a Jew of monotheism. But a limited causality is no longer a causality at all, as our wonderful Spinoza recognized with all incision…

Now that I have quite openly stated our differences in intellectual convictions it is still clear to me that we are quite close to each other in essential things, i.e. in our evaluation of human behavior … I think that we would understand each other quite well if we talked about concrete things.

With friendly thanks and best wishes,

Yours,

A. Einstein

http://www.lettersofnote.com/2009/10/word-god-is-product-of-human-weakness.html

A knowledge of the existence of something we cannot penetrate, of the manifestations of the profoundest reason and the most radiant beauty – it is this knowledge and this emotion that constitute the truly religious attitude; in this sense, and in this alone, I am a deeply religious man. (Albert Einstein)

I do not believe in a personal God and I have never denied this but have expressed it clearly. If something is in me which can be called religious then it is the unbounded admiration for the structure of the world so far as our science can reveal it. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

I believe in Spinoza’s God who reveals himself in the orderly harmony of what exists, not in a God who concerns himself with the fates and actions of human beings. (Albert Einstein)

http://www.spaceandmotion.com/albert-einstein-god-religion-theology.htm

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About ExEB

I'm a agnostic/atheist . Interested in learning more about science. I also am an "ex-member" of a group most publicly known within modern times, as the Exclusive Brethren. Whom are an off-shoot of the original Plymouth Brethren group. I'd say it likely my personality could possibly be described as quirky.You know ,as in being , unconventional , unorthodox , unusual, off-centre, strange, bizarre, weird, peculiar, odd, freakish, outlandish, offbeat, out of the ordinary, bohemian, alternative, zany I'm sure iv'e been classed as "crazy" . Many times But then, being born into a group like the exclusive brethren. Doesn't lend itself ? to tend to produce things considered as being "very normal" .Does it I escaped the Exclusive Brethren cult as a 15 year old teenager. Even since that time iv'e been trying to adjust to living life outside the cult. With much of my life being lived within the genre of "wild colonial boy" style. In the general sense of a church-rebel picking and choosing from role models who appeared within-life along the way. But as the exclusive brethren cult had traditionally maintained a general church-rule , of need to shun and totally excommunicate any ex member of their group.Treating such people as if they were dead. Thus this situation developed more to do with my need of following traditionally enforced church-rule , as apposed to it being so much about "life-choices". Certain emotional experiences, and parts of life in general, have led to me adopting a sense of low self esteem. Which is a situation i still deal with from time to time. Through my ongoing interest in science. I find i am able to gather more information to help me better understand my situation. Much about life for me, has often seemed like a massive puzzle.With many missing pieces.
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14 Responses to Thoughts of Albert Einstein on idea of God

  1. Paul Darroch says:

    In terms of religion in the past century there is no more important person than Ernestine standing alongside Darwin for the previous century in shaping religion -probably Newton in the century before that….
    I became aware of his influence in a reference in a book written by the first journalist into the Afghan war (1980)and a Muslim brother who was trying to tell the West of the evil influence of Einstein. And searching that matter out I agree with him in fact the reason for my walking away from Bible College of New Zealand and the mis name ‘evangelical’ movement, was because Contextual (Relativistic) Hermeneutics has stripped out the authority of formerly Bible believing churches such that the General Secretary of the Baptist Union can tell me that it is alright for my new brother in law to marry into our family when he has been dis fellowshipped by a Tauranga Open Assembly for divorce against his Christian wife. So an idea which is about maths soon becomes about morals which is appropriate.
    If as was done recently we can celebrate the life and achievement of Darwin in bewitching Science and destroying my beloved Geology/Geomorphology then how much more do we need to worship Einstein. thankyou for bring our brother to our attention. Next time how about our all time favorite J.N.D!

    • ExEB says:

      J.N.D ?? …Old sporty side-burns himself ….Im afraid i just dont know enough about these folk my friend to say that much about them. One thing i did find interesting was a large castle that at one time belonged to the Darby family.

      Here is something written about it .

      Another source of evil was found at Leap Castle that may have compounded and nurtured the sprit of the elemental. A hidden ubliet (a dungeon) was found off the bloody chapel. It was a small room with a drop floor. Those who were forgotten within this room suffered unimaginable pain and misery until their death. Prisoners would be pushed into the room to fall through the floor and land on a spike eight feet below. If you were not lucky enough to die quickly on the spike, you died of starvation in an odorless room while the aroma of food and the sounds of merriment drifted up from the rooms below. A narrow window would let you watch those who came and went in freedom from the castle. Around c.1900 workmen who where hired to clean out the ubliet made a hideous discovery, human skeletons laid piled on top of each other. It took three full cart loads to remove all of the bones. Among the bones workmen found a pocket watch made in the 1840’s. It is not certain if the dungeon was still in use then.

      Shortly after Leap’s dungeons gruesome discovery, a psychic disturbance may have caused the emergence of the elemental spirit. In 1659 ownership of Leap Castle passed in marriage from the O’Carroll family to an English family, the Darbys. The Darby family turned Leap into their family home, with improvements and additions and landscaped gardens . In the late 19th century descendants Johanthan and Mildred Darby were looking forward to raising their family here. The occult was the fashion of the day, and Mildred Darby did some innocent dabbling, despite the castle’s history and reputation for being haunted. Mildred’s dabbling with magic awakened the elemental with ferocious velocity.

      In 1909, Mildred Darby wrote an article for the Journal Occult Review, describing her terrifying ordeal. “I was standing in the Gallery looking down at the main floor, when I felt somebody put a hand on my shoulder. The thing was about the size of a sheep. Thin guanting shadowy…, it’s face was human, to be more accurate inhuman. Its lust in its eyes which seemed half decomposed in black cavities stared into mine. The horrible smell one hundred times intensified came up into my face, giving me a deadly nausea. It was the smell of a decomposing corpse.”

      So anyway Paul about you comment ….Were you meaning you think Albert Eienstein was a very evil person ?

      • ExEB says:

        Abit more history of Leap Castle

        The elemental is thought to be a primitive ghost that attaches itself to a particular place. It is often malevolent, terrifying and unpredictable. After Mrs. Darby’s experiments in the black arts, Leap Castle has never been the same. Haunting plague Leap leaving a sinister air throughout the castle. The Darbys remained at Leap until 1922. Being the home of an English family, it became the target of the Irish struggle for independence. Destroyed by bombs, completely looted, nothing but a burned out shell remained. The Darby’s were driven out.

        In the 1970’s Leap Castle was purchased by an Australian, who had a white witch brought in from Mexico to exorcise the castle. She spent many hours in the bloody chapel, when she emerged she explained that the spirits at Leap Castle were no longer malevolent, but they wished to remain.

        In the 1990’s the castle was sold to the current owners. They were aware of the castle’s troubled history. Shortly after moving in they began restoration of the castle. During which time a “freak accident” left the owner with a broken kneecap delaying restoration work on the castle for nearly a year. One year after his “accident” the owner was back at work restoring his castle when the ladder he was standing on suddenly tilted backwards away from the wall causing him to jump several stories resulting in a broken ankle. Both were strange accidents.

        The owners say they would be happy to share the castle with the spirits as long as there are no more “occurrences”.

        In 1991, in Leap Castle’s Bloody Chapel was the christening of the owner’s baby daughter. For the first time in centuries the “Bloody Chapel” was filled with music, dancing, laughter, and most of all love. The day had been a “happy, pleasant, wonderful day”. If the troubled spirits of Leap Castle did not leave, maybe they have finally found some peace

  2. Paul Darroch says:

    YES!!!! Exactly what I had also found out about J.N.D as well.
    Now the man in New Zealand who should be supporting my view of history, would have to be Associate Professor Peter Lynham, who wrote the ground breaking “There we found the Brethren” as his first book. But instead of backing me up that the visit of Darby to this nation was a disaster, matched only by the sign of that visit, the Motueka River flooding so badly that whole houses were washed away and the river wrecked so that is is now filled with gravel…. He tells stories of Darby making a sudden decision to embark on the only ship coming direct in those day ‘The Frisco Mail’ Arriving in Auckland and then having his first Brethren fellowship with an assembly there which has always remained Open. (Howe St has since closed up!)
    Talk to Bill Subrisky (Auckland) who was raised Exclusive Brethren as a boy, and you will discover the reasonable possibility of Darby being Demonized as a child, and this resulting in his extremely strong (Elect Vessel) insistence upon doing things is a way which is quite different to the life Jesus lived or the example given us by St Paul, Peter and other early Christian leaders. When it comes to fruit Darby gives us ongoing ‘division’ but at the same time helps those currently EB because they;
    1. Know what it is to be part of a cult lead by their Elect Vessel (No not Bishop Brian)
    2. Know the tactics used by Stalin or Hitler to get conformity to something destructive.
    In Psalm 2 God in heaven laughs at Bruce Hale but soon he will get angry… meanwhile reading verse 8 and recognizing again His Anointed one we as Brethren should ASK!

    • ExEB says:

      Paul please dont take this the wrong way , because as i have already said you are welcome to disagree with me.But you said …” Talk to Bill Subrisky (Auckland) who was raised Exclusive Brethren as a boy, and you will discover the reasonable possibility of Darby being Demonized as a child ”

      Paul in my “own opinion” i would have to say that anyone who believes in the type of angry nasty vengeful God depicted within the bible , would have likely been indoctrinated with a type of demon . But not really a demon in the literal sense because i dont even believe in the existence of any such things , but still its an “indoctrination” of a ancient nasty type attitude. It dont really matter much , if its indoctrination by a nasty holy book or a nasty dictator or nasty street gang , either way its still a nasty ideology with a nasty type of atitude , that quite naturally then tends to churn out some very nasty offspring.

      Please understand Paul im not here to try and push you into any corner where im going to suggest you need to agree with any personal “opinion” i have .

      • Paul Darroch says:

        I agree; There are a number of ways which we can take the reality of our brother JND. And how we look at him will depend as you say on how much “spiritual” access, we are prepared to admit, or have had experience with.
        When I went to a “Charisma” Seminar at which Bill and others were teaching and sharing, I was of the opinion that they mis read the literalism of the bible and thus are inclined to look for “spiritual” solutions when a more human approach would work just as well. The bible has little to say about angels and demons and thus going to secondary speculation the literal level is missed. Hence people cannot see USA being described (Say in Ezekiel 27,28) they are so enchanted with what they see as a reference to Satan- (but Yes some Muslim leaders call USA ‘the great satan!’ Ezekiel 27 and 28 may prove it!)
        But getting back to your point. The Darby family in Northern Ireland had an appalling attitude to Irish people and the Catholic church. Before we read Darby, or follow him, we need to repent of this intolerance and the terrible killing that the Darby family did to Godly and not so godly Irish.
        The demonizing which JND experienced as a young boy typically so those who have had experienced it in Wicca involved young Darby pushing a person down the hole in the family castle chapel.
        Senior Exclusive Brethren, if they per chance want their religion to continue, will need in the next year or so to privately travel to Leap Castle and repent of the evil of their founder and his family. Then publicly they will need to go to the most senior Catholic clergyman or Bishop in those parts and weep with their brother seeking his healing of them.
        Failure to do these practical steps of private and public repentance will result in a Major Work of Evil being written and becoming a film about Darby and Leap Castle.
        If Darby can, and did feature in Time Magazine, trust me he is a major person and there are those who do want to expose his evil such as his coming to my nation New Zealand and creating ongoing division in our Brethren families here.
        Do we need Brother Bill to cast out demons ? Or do we need to rather find a local Catholic clergy person and seek forgiveness for the evil we have been associated with in idolizing and worshiping Darby from Ireland.

      • ExEB says:

        Quote …Senior Exclusive Brethren, if they per chance want their religion to continue, will need in the next year or so to privately travel to Leap Castle and repent of the evil of their founder and his family

        This is what i find a little disturbing about the faithful and their faith beliefs .Folks of faith think , the act of simply traveling to Leap Castle to “repent” , will change things and suddenly make it all better.

        I`ll tell you what causes this type of nastiness Paul ….Its societies that are brought up reading from nasty ancient holy books written by ancient nasty barbarians , who even spoke of dashing the heads of babies against rocks .

  3. Paul Darroch says:

    SH 20 Auckland, take the Mt Roskill Dominion Rd turnoff, Church of Christ Bookshop, now maybe 90% of the books there are Kingdom Now- Colorado Springs type stuff; but they have in the Right Corner all the Hanna Brown books, buy all four of them.
    In the Leap Castle you can see the spiritual authority being to throw people from a height and break their legs etc. This sort of thing has to be sorted! Ongoing situations in generations of our families such as the Darby Family had/has with their evil.
    While not saying she is Brethren I have never encountered anyone who uses the Bible is such a literal way as Dr Brown does, so she might as well have been raised EB!
    For really complex situations that come up, also in Mt Roskill is Dove Ministries with as I say Bill Subrisky being raised EB. But once you have the Baptism of the Holy Spirit and God can direct you to do things and you have extensive literal Bible knowledge you can do pretty much everything, and have access intuitively to what ever you need to do, so don’t stress. Forget the so called experts as this is a disputable area where our Enemy is a liar and likes people wasting time going no where or getting bound up in something worse! Work fast! Cut things off. Confess sin. Pray over things. Get rid of ancient family/familiar objects that carry the curses. Don’t be surprised how our Enemy has infiltrated our EB movement. Relax be happy and don’t get an ego simply because you are doing things which sort out curses and situations that have destroyed our families for many generations. Rather the best operators are those who just do it, and then move on to other things. God gets the glory-paul

    • ExEB says:

      Hi Paul …These holy books all have their fair share of this nasty domineering type authority that depicts people being treated to all manner of terrible experiences …We already discussed what was spoken within the scripture about the great joy babies heads being dashed against rocks …And this is but one instance of many such instances recorded within this holy book .

      Surely the Darby family cant be held “totally responsible” for any nastiness they also became involved in …..When ancient holy books that have often been circulated among us , which many folk have used as a type of role model ….Also included such stories as some adults talking about the great joy of dashing the heads of babies against the rocks

  4. Paul Darroch says:

    Well sorry welcome to the new century!
    Dashing babies heads against rocks or rather worse things are going to be common place in this new century!
    At six billion going on seven there are right now people who have plans to do things much worse than Hitler’s holocaust. In the early December 1941 conference when the ‘Final Solution’ was discussed by Hendrick and other Nazi leaders, some spoke of how upset some of German soldiers were becoming in shooting women and children. And that is precisely what the scientific poll of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army was about, to discover the attitude of Chinese military people to smashing babies. (See Chi Hao Tian speech Epoc Times)
    Do I approve of what Germany did and China intents to do, what Russians did, and things American soldiers tell me they have seen… No. And I don’t blame God, but realistically when nations sin such as China or USA are currently, then there are consequences and as an historian sometimes I can see a righteous justice in the big picture over several generations of things being done within a population.
    Brother your problem is that you in lacking a deep fear of God have missed seeing just how sinful you as a person are,
    and just how sinful we as Brethren have become. But relax the judgments of a Holy God are on the way so if we don’t repent now there will be opportunities latter…. but can my people here in Mangere survive given our sin?

    • ExEB says:

      Quote Brother your problem is that you in lacking a deep fear of God have missed seeing just how sinful you as a person are

      I fear God-s as much as i fear Trolls Goblins and Ghosts . Which God should i fear anyway, Thor ? … Bosumabla ? ….Hippomache maybe ?? ….. Paul thats the trouble there are just so many …All completely man made too ! …. http://www.graveyardofthegods.org/deadgods.html

      So Paul in effect …. im only sceptical about “one” more god than you are sceptical of ….Have you lost your “fear” of the god Bosumabla , Paul ?? ….Thats your trouble Paul …you have lost your fear of the God Bosumabla

      Why do “you judge” me as being sinful Paul ? …Am i sinful , simply because i dont believe in Gods ? …Would i be less sinful if i believed in Gods , yet sat warming pews each week , sitting with many other faithful pew warming folk , all who were taking very little “honest action” while elsewhere everywhere all around their neighbourhood many other folks suffered on endlessly from ongoing faith abuse? .

      And you saying the “righteous people” are the ones who “warm pews” and “pray” each and every day , yet take no honest human action ? ….Paul what gives you the right to make this judgement ? .

      Paul the EB look down on others and judge them as sinfull ,simply because they are not EB ….You judge me as sinfull ,simply because im atheist .

      To be honest i fear no God ….If i was a dishonest faithful person like most are …i feel maybe i might have some good reason to fear death ….I might have reason to hope like hell i dont meet any ghosts of all those poor folks slaughtered after being accused as wiitches ….By the God believing faithful liars ! ..who bullshitted about the existence of “divine guidence” ….divine guidence they deceitfully suggested they received through “prayer” .

      Paul i would fear to face death as a faithful person still promoting faiths that have caused many humans so much suffering and harm …Thats what i would fear Paul ….And i would fear to be a deceitful folk of faith who promotes a connection with Gods that he/she never actually ever honestly had , Paul ……Atleast when i die Paul , i can die being honest and saying i saw absolutely no evidence of God-s ….I experienced absolutely no evidence of God-s

      One thing is for very sure Paul …If there is any afterlife that you and i will experience …..It will be chocker block full of deceitful faithful liars of many types who bullshitted about divine guidence and the supposed existence of so very many different God-s …(you read the long list in that link i provided Paul) ……If there be any afterlife it will be full of faithful deceitful liars who caused extreme pain and harm to many !.

      I surely would not ever wish to die being one of these people Paul .

    • ExEB says:

      Paul as time moves onward humanity continues to make more improvements .Thats honest history Paul . Its still happening today when evolving “humanity” questions abuse and inequalities happening in this world .Evolution is still bringing improvements when humanity questions polution or killing whales or posibility of certain animals extinction .

      This improvement has absolutely nothing to do with prayer or God …….Infact it is actually continued prayer and continued faith in Gods , which still hinders progress and possibility for more improvement in many areas of human equality

      Dashing babies heads againsts rocks is the mark of barbarians .Hitler wasnt much better evolved .China still has a long way to go also.

      Im sure many deluded faithful folk likely think its some sort of righteous justice happening to many of us EX Ebs too … Hense why they sit warming pews and praying worthless prayers

      It will be some righteous justice finally happening when humans evolve far enough that they burn faith books and stop praying and wasting time warming pews …and start getting on with more of the honest action

  5. Paul Darroch says:

    China is one place where Evolution reigns supreme in the educational thinking of her intellectuals.
    And thus is a good place to go to study the effect of that thinking, the philosophy that mankind is progressing and that progress and science in a free (evolutionary) market under the protective guidance of the Atheistic Centralized Communist Party will solve all the problems that China is currently creating for itself. That resource shortages, pollution ( in other words what selfish sinful behavior actually looks like) over population, stealing technology from The West- who they despise; that in the end China as they believe and their leaders tell them -Will rule the world.
    When I talk about sin, having a Marxist Economic History education which seeks to belittle and push to the side any though or evidence of the hand of a righteous God, this for me allows me to feel happy that even without God or any recognition of God- China can scientifically by her own efforts disprove the theories taught in her own universities!
    New Zealand’s TV3 broke a story just prior to the Beijing Olympics when Chinese Scientist studying the cause of the Sichuan earthquake concluded that by building a massive dam which sat right on top of the killer earthquake fault which in to the North Gansu province killed countless hundreds of thousands, that what should have been a small survivable releasing earth movement became under the tension of that weight the killer event, where government building such as schools constructed without reinforcing so that the builders could make a better profit, collapse wiping out a generation from that community.
    Thus two “Government” initiates which the Chinese government felt good about- Science in action- Building a dam to create electric power for development, and State Schools for indoctrinating the children in Atheism and Evolution- those killed people, and we do not need to blame God in the least for what I call Righteous Judgments!
    You see brother I do genuinely think that you research into Atheism is the best thing that has happened for all of us EB’s Bush Brethren etc. Because you have a foundation of God’s word, a genuine spirit of truth within you, and we keep praying for you to become in time one of our best evangelists. love paul

    • ExEB says:

      Hi Paul .Yes i prefer the truth, however life has also taught me that in society truth is not always something that serves a person so well , and quite often telling the truth only serves to make life more difficult.

      Why pick China as what stands for what atheism produces , Pau ? .Personally i think this is a little dishoest of folks of faith who try to pull this type of trick . They pick out a country ruled by a type of dictatorship and try suggesting this is what atheism stands for …Then they will also try adding the propaganda that atheism stands anarchy and nihilism and a whole bunch of unfounded other deceitful mistruths …..I know they dont mean to be deceitful …I know its only the type of propaganda thats been passed on to them by other folks of faith ….I know its a honest mistake ….But its still deceitful practice just the same .

      Why didnt you choose Sweden .After all Sweden has the most athiests .And Denmark and Norway would also come in pretty close .France is also pretty high in atheism last time i heard it was about 43-54% per population .

      No Paul atheism doesnt equal a dictatorship ,so its only pure propaganda when theists try connecting atheism with people like Stalin …or these countries like China who have been rule by goverenment run on dictatorship.

      New Zealand is pretty much a atheist country now Paul …Many of our churches have been turned into houses or backpackers .Church number shrink by they day as the new generation doesnt adapt to theist fear tatics of threats of some nasty God who created humans , (being all-knowing) he would have known he would be sending to hell .

      And atheism is not connected to anarchy ….it is atheists these days who stand up for the rights of others …It is atheists these days that help fight the tyrancy of Popes and religion , that trys to hide sexual abuse .

      So no Atheism is not connected to anarchy , because anarchy only ever cares about itself .

      Strange enough China was also once a place where superstition ran riot,and people believed in ghosts ,demons and evil spirits .

      I could agree with you that it was a bad move allowing dams to be built in certain areas , but this is to do with governments and planning , it has no bearing on the faith or non faith of people …..Otherwise how do you explain atheist governments like Swenden and elsewhere that seem to plan matters pretty well .

      However the U.S.A and many Muslim countries are places where faith does still manage to reign supreme in the educational thinking of her intellectuals , though ….And look at them ! …Warring flat out …Helping cause a global recession

      Paul you talk about China stealing from the west , yet much of our early medication came from China …We found gun powder in China and China invented paper making and printing .They also invented the compass .The Chinese invented technologies involving mechanics, hydraulics, and mathematics applied to horology, metallurgy, astronomy, agriculture, engineering, music theory, craftsmanship, nautics, and warfare. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Chinese_inventions

      Did we steal this from them Paul ? .

      Paul be careful what faithful propaganda people will try to push on you .Faith circles are liturally full of this propaganda machine which willfully passes on such deceit .Whats worse is its all ways been this way too ….Faithful folks have been masters of deceit for thousands of years ……I see absolutely no reason to trust whats written within any holy books ….Right throughout time , folks of faith have continually proved themselves to be by far of the very least trustworthy folk ….Right from ancient times when folks of faith made claims and suggestions that throwing live babies into the flames of fire , might help please the Gods and bring humans more fertility ….Folks of faith have continued on with their deceitful trait and underhand practice of using propaganda

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